Flat feet (pes planus) is a condition in which the foot has an arch that is lower than usual, where the entire sole of the foot comes into complete or near-complete contact with the ground.
In adults, pes planus is due either to failure of arch development or due to flattening of an already developed arch, in which case it is referred to as Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity (AAFD).
Adult acquired flat foot may occur due to any of the following causes:
- Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (the most common cause).
- Over pronation.
- Tearing of foot ligaments.
- Loose ligaments.
- Abnormal bone unions in the hind foot.
- Degenerative diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis).
Most people have no signs or symptoms associated with flat feet, however some people with the condition experience pain in their feet, ankle joints, hips and lower back. Shoes may also wear unevenly.
Based on the findings a combination of treatment options may be prescribed including: